Sterling-LWB5+ WiFi 5 + Bluetooth 5.2 Module / USB Adapter

Recommended for New Design (RND)

Overview

New: Pluggable USB-A Wi-Fi 5 adapter for Linux devices!

Laird Connectivity’s customers across multiple industries have a diverse set of requirements and specific needs. They asked for a truly robust industrial IoT wifi module: one that’s rugged, small, simplifies their BOM, is globally certified, has reliable connectivity, and easy to integrate.

Laird Connectivity’s Sterling-LWB5+ embedded wifi module answers that call for next-gen wireless IoT. Powered by Infineon’s CYW4373E silicon, the Sterling-LWB5+ is purpose-built for IIoT connectivity through a secure, reliable, and robust feature set. It’s IoT from the start: fully certified, easy to integrate, and is the fastest route to the market for IoT.

  • Purpose Built:  Made with manufacturability in mind, and pre-certified to cut down barriers to entry.  
  • Compatible: Our Linux Backports package supports many Linux kernels.
  • Reliable:  Integrated PA (Power Amplifier) and LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) with antenna diversity for reliable connectivity in harsh RF environments.
  • Robust:  Rich feature-set including 802.11ac Wi-Fi and Dual-Mode Bluetooth Low Energy. Reliable in industrial temperature range, and solder-down module is suitable for industrial vibration and impact demands.
  • Secure:  Supports the latest WPA3 security standards.

Specifications

Wireless Specification
Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac)
Bluetooth 5.2 Low Energy
Chipset (Wireless)
Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E
Dimension (Width - mm)
12 mm
Dimension (Length - mm)
17 mm
Antenna Options
Chip antenna or MHF4 connector
Certifications
Module: FCC, ISED, UKCA, EU, MIC, AS-NZS
USB Adapter: FCC, ISED, EU, UKCA, AS/NZS
Form Factor
Solderable module or M.2 E-key Module
Output Power
Integrated power amplifier and low noise amplifier
Wi-Fi Coexistence
Integrated coexistence
Antenna Type Chipset (Wireless) Description Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Logical Interfaces OS/Software Product Type System Architecture Technology Bulk or Single
450-00137 Internal Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Pluggable USB Adapter - Single 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz USB Linux Pluggable USB Adapter Hosted 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 Single
Antenna Type Chipset (Wireless) Description Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Logical Interfaces OS/Software Product Type System Architecture Technology Bulk or Single
450-00137B Internal Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Pluggable USB Adapter - Bulk 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz USB Linux Pluggable USB Adapter Hosted 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 Bulk
Description Antenna Type Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless)
453-00045-K1 Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Development Board (Chip Antenna) Internal, Chip Antenna 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Development Kit Android, Linux SDIO, Serial, USB Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E
Description Antenna Type Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless) Packaging
453-00045C Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Solderable Module (Chip Antenna) - Bulk Internal, Chip Antenna 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Embedded Module Android, Linux SDIO, Serial, USB Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E Cut Tape
Description Antenna Type Logical Interfaces Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Packaging Chipset (Wireless) Technology
453-00045R Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Solderable module (Chip Antenna) - Bulk Internal, Chip Antenna 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Embedded Module Android, Linux SDIO, Serial, USB Hosted Tape/Reel Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0
Description Antenna Type Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless)
453-00046-K1 Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Development Board (External Antenna) External, MHF4 Connector 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Development Kit Android, Linux SDIO, Serial, USB Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E
Description Antenna Type Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless) Packaging
453-00046C Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Solderable module (External Antenna) - Single External, MHF4 Connector 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Embedded Module Android, Linux SDIO, Serial, USB Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E Cut Tape
Description Antenna Type Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless) Packaging
453-00046R Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Solderable Module (External Antenna) - Bulk External, MHF4 Connector 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Embedded Module Android, Linux SDIO, Serial, USB Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E Tape/Reel
Description Antenna Type Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless) Packaging
453-00047C Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Solderable Module (Trace Pin) - Bulk External, Trace Pin 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Embedded Module Android, Linux SDIO, Serial, USB Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E Cut Type
Description Antenna Type Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless) Packaging
453-00047R Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Solderable Module (Trace Pin) - Bulk External, Trace Pin 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Embedded Module Android, Linux SDIO, Serial, USB Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E Tape/Reel
Description Antenna Type Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless)
453-00048 Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 M.2 Carrier Board (E-Type Key w/ SDIO/UART) External, MHF4 Connector 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Embedded Module Android, Linux SDIO, Serial Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E
Description Antenna Type Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless)
453-00048-K1 Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Development Kit for M.2 Key E (SDIO/UART) External, MHF4 Connector 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Development Kit Android, Linux SDIO, Serial Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E
Antenna Type Description Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless)
453-00049 External, MHF4 Connector Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 M.2 Carrier Board (E-Type Key w/ USB) 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Embedded Module Android, Linux USB Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E
Description Antenna Type Technology Frequency Range (Min) Frequency Range (Max) Frequency Range 2 (Min) Frequency Range 2 (Max) Product Type OS/Software Logical Interfaces System Architecture Chipset (Wireless)
453-00049-K1 Sterling LWB5+ 802.11ac / Bluetooth 5.0 Development Kit for M.2 Key E (USB/USB) External, MHF4 Connector 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0 2400 MHz 2495 MHz 5150 MHz 5825 MHz Development Kit Android, Linux USB Hosted Infineon (Cypress) CYW4373E

Photo Gallery

453-00045C

453-00045R

453-00046C

453-00046R

453-00047C

453-00047R

453-00048

453-00049

453-00045-K1

453-00046-K1

453-00048-K1

453-00049-K1

450-00137

450-00137B

Certified Antennas

  • 001-0009

    001-0009

    2.4 / 5.5 GHz Dipole RF Antennas

    Pre-certified 2.4 and 5 GHz RF antennas, IP67-rated for dust and water protection.

    Learn More
  • FlexPIFA and FlexPIFA 6E

    001-0021

    FlexPIFA / FlexPIFA 6E Flexible Adhesive-Backed PIFA Internal Antennas

    Dual band antenna with MHF4L connector

    Industry-first, flexible, planar inverted-F antennas for curved surfaces.

    2.5-3 dBi gain.

    Available in 2.4 GHz, dual-band 2.4/5 GHz and Wi-Fi 6E 2.4/5/6 GHz.

    Learn More
  • EMF2471A3S

    EMF2449A1-10MH4L

    Mini NanoBlade Flex / Flex 6E Series Internal Antenna

    Flexible, onmidirectional PCB Mini NanoBlade. Vertically polarized, with 2.79 dBi gain @ 2.4 GHz, 3.38 dBi gain @ 5 GHz, and 5.2 dBi gain @ 6GHz. 

    Learn More
  • Nanoblade Series Antennas

    ENB2449A1-10MH4L

    Nanoblade Series Internal Antenna

    Vertically polarized, omnidirectional planar antenna with 2 dBi gain @2.24-2.5 GHz, 3.9 dBi gain @ 5.15-5.35 GHz, and 4 dBi gain @ 5.6 Ghz. 

    Learn More
  • U.FL to SMA Cable

    CARSMF10AMH4L-001

    Reverse Polarity SMA Cable Assemblies

    U.FL or MHF4L to Reverse Polarity SMA Cable assemblies, engineered for peak performance up to a maximum of 7.5 GHz. 

    Learn More

Become a Laird Connectivity Customer and Gain Exclusive Access to Our Design Services Team

  • Antenna Scans
  • Antenna selection and placement
  • Custom antenna design
  • Worldwide EMC testing / certifications
  • Embedded RF hardware / firmware design
  • Cloud architecture and integration
  • Mobile application development
  • Product & Industrial Design

Talk to an Expert

Documentation

Name Part Type Last Updated
Product Brief - Sterling-LWB5+ All Product Brief 06/25/2021
ISED ICES-003 Issue 7 Declaration of Compliance All Certification 05/18/2021
3D Models - Sterling-LWB5+ - M.2 Modules All Technical Drawings 01/25/2021
FCC Certifications - Sterling-LWB5+ Module All Certification 03/15/2022
AS/NZS Certifications - Sterling-LWB5+ USB Adapter All Certification 03/15/2022
Schematics - Sterling LWB5+ M.2 Cards & M.2 DVK All Technical Drawings 02/05/2021
Datasheet - Sterling LWB5+ M.2 All Datasheet 08/12/2021
RoHS 3 Compliance - Wi-Fi Products All Certification 02/16/2022
Product Brief - Sterling LWB5+ Pluggable USB Adapter All Product Brief 09/24/2021
3D Models - Sterling-LWB5+ - SMT Modules All Technical Drawings 01/25/2021
ISED (Canada) Certifications - Sterling-LWB5+ Module All Certification 03/15/2022
CE Certifications - Sterling-LWB5+ USB Adapter All Certification 03/15/2022
Regulatory Information - Sterling LWB5+ All Certification 06/10/2021
DVK Guide - Sterling LWB5+ All Documentation 12/08/2020
Regulatory Release Notes - LWB5+ All Documentation 09/15/2021
Datasheet - Sterling LWB5+ USB Dongle All Datasheet 08/20/2021
LWB5+ PCB Footprint (DXF and Altium format) All Technical Drawings 12/22/2021
MIC Certifications - Sterling-LWB5+ M.2 Module All Certification 03/15/2022
FCC Certifications - Sterling-LWB5+ USB Adapter All Certification 03/15/2022
Software, Sterling-LWB, LWB5, and LWB5+ All Software 04/14/2021
DVK Guide - Sterling LWB5+ M.2 All Documentation 12/08/2020
AS/NZS Certifications - Sterling-LWB5+ Module All Certification 03/15/2022
PCN 10C-2021 - Sterling LWB5+ Series All Documentation 10/13/2021
LWB5+ SCH Symbol (Altium format) All Technical Drawings 12/22/2021
MIC Certifications - Sterling-LWB5+ Module All Certification 03/15/2022
IC Certifications - Sterling-LWB5+ USB Adapter All Certification 03/15/2022
Application Note - PetaLinux Software Integration - 60 Series and LWB Series All Application Note 08/13/2020
3D Models - Sterling-LWB5+ - Development Kits All Technical Drawings 01/25/2021
EU Certifications - Sterling-LWB5+ Module All Certification 03/15/2022
Regulatory Information Guide - Sterling-LWB5+ USB Adapter All Certification 03/15/2022
Schematic - Sterling-LWB5+ Modules DVK v3.0 All Technical Drawings 02/05/2021
Datasheet - Sterling LWB5+ All Datasheet 04/21/2022

FAQ

How do I test connecting to a BLE peripheral in Linux?

To activate BT, list controller information and scan for BT/BLE devices:

# bluetoothctl
Agent registered
[bluetooth]# power on
Changing power on succeeded
[bluetooth]# list
Controller C0:EE:40:50:00:00 summit [default]
[bluetooth]# scan on

To connect to a device acting as a peripheral:

[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[CHG] Controller C0:EE:40:50:00:00 Discovering: yes
[NEW] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 Pixel XL
[CHG] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 RSSI: -68
[CHG] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 RSSI: -58
...
[NEW] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 Pixel XL
[bluetooth]# scan off
Discovery stopped
[CHG] Controller C0:EE:40:50:00:00 Discovering: no
[CHG] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 TxPower is nil
[CHG] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 RSSI is nil
[bluetooth]# pair 4C:90:DE:92:00:00
Attempting to pair with 4C:90:DE:92:00:00
[CHG] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 Connected: yes
[NEW] Primary Service
        /org/bluez/hci0/dev_4C_90_DE_92_00_00/service0001
        00001801-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
        Generic Attribute Profile
[NEW] Characteristic
        /org/bluez/hci0/dev_4C_90_DE_92_00_00/service0001/char0002
        00002a05-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
...
[NEW] Characteristic
        /org/bluez/hci0/dev_4C_90_DE_92_00_00/service003a/char003b
        00002a8a-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
        First Name
[NEW] Characteristic
        /org/bluez/hci0/dev_4C_90_DE_92_00_00/service003a/char003d
        00002a90-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
        Last Name
[NEW] Characteristic
        /org/bluez/hci0/dev_4C_90_DE_92_00_00/service003a/char003f
        00002a8c-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
        Gender
...
[CHG] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 UUIDs: 0000181c-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
[CHG] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 UUIDs: 0000aaa0-0000-1000-8000-aabbccddeeff
[CHG] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 ServicesResolved: yes
Request confirmation
[agent] Confirm passkey 210165 (yes/no): yes
[Pixel XL]# trust 4C:90:DE:92:00:00
[CHG] Device 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 Trusted: yes
Changing 4C:90:DE:92:00:00 trust succeeded

The peripheral device is a Google Pixel XL running Android 10 using Nordic’s nRF app with an advertising profile setup with dummy information. If you pair with a device that does not have some kind of service running, it will disconnect, as BT/BLE has nothing to do.

 

How do I manually cross-compile the Sterling supplicant from source?

It is best practice to include the source in your build system. If using Yocto, our external layer will do this for you.
Here is an example manually compiling using our SOM60 as a target in a Buildroot environment:

 

  1. Download and extract the Sterling supplicant source.
  2. Navigate to the "laird" directory.
  3. Edit the config_laird file:
  4. Find the following line, uncomment and change the path to your "openssl/include" directory:
    original line:
    #CFLAGS += -I/usr/local/openssl/include
    modified line:
    CFLAGS += -I/wb/buildroot/output/som60sd/build/host-libopenssl-1.1.1d/include
  5. Run make with the following flags
    set:
    CC="" for your cross-compile binary
    PKG_CONFIG="" for your pkg-config binary
    PKG_CONFIG_PATH="" for your pkgconfig directory
    OBJCOPY="" for your objcopy binary

 

Note the following example is a single line command:
make CC="/wb/buildroot/output/som60sd/host/bin/arm-buildroot-linux-gnueabihf-gcc" PKG_CONFIG="/wb/buildroot/output/som60sd/host/bin/pkg-config" OBJCOPY="/wb/buildroot/output/som60sd/host/arm-buildroot-linux-gnueabihf/bin/objcopy" PKG_CONFIG_PATH="/wb/buildroot/output/som60sd/host/arm-buildroot-linux-gnueabihf/sysroot/usr/lib/pkgconfig"

How do I test running a GATT server in Linux?

Using the test scripts provided with BlueZ to setup a GATT server:

cd /lib/bluez/test/
./example-gatt-server &

Power on Bluetooth, start advertising and set to pairable:

# bluetoothctl
Agent registered
[bluetooth]# power on
Changing power on succeeded
[bluetooth]# advertise on
[bluetooth]# pairable on

Connect with Nordic's nRF smartphone app and read the fake battery level.

 

How do I use the LWB5+ DVK with an SDR104 capable external slot?

The LWB5+ is an embedded SDIO module and using an external slot may introduce some challenges. The external slot likely starts at 3.3 VIO and steps down to 1.8 VIO. If this is not the case, the following also addresses fixed VIO for both 1v8 and 3v3. As noted below, the M.2 variant only supports 1.8 VIO.

  1. Run the LWB5+ at 3.3 VIO SD High Speed mode (module only, not M.2)
    1. Configure the LWB5+ DVK for 3.3 VIO via strapping switches (1,0) and VDDIO switched to 3v3
    2. Add no-1-8-v to the SDIO device node in the device tree
    3. Confirm the voltage step-down is disabled on the host
  2. Run the LWB5+ at SDR speed by syncing VIO via jumper wire (module only, not M.2)
    1. If the host board exposes VIO of the external slot, depopulate the VDDIO switch on the LWB5+ DVK and wire the center pin directly to VIO on the host.
      1. An example is TP709 on the i.MX6UL EVK from NXP
    2. The external slot may not be fully capable of SDR104 @200MHz and the bus speed may have to be limited
      1. Example 100MHz device tree property: max-frequency = <100000000>;
  3. Force the host to run at 1.8 VIO all the time (module and M.2)
    1. This requires modification to the host and is up to you to weigh the risk and devise a resolution
    2. The LWB5+ M.2 DVK will not need modification
    3. Configure the LWB5+ module DVK for 1.8 VIO via strapping switches (1,1) and VDDIO switched to 1v8
    4. The slot may not be capable of full 200MHz SDR104 operation, see note above about limiting bus speed

How can I receive notifications of the latest updates to the driver and firmware?

Simply log into GitHub, go to the corresponding release packages page and click the "Watch" button (eye icon) in the top right of the page. Some radios (such as the LWB Series) requires you to download firmware separately from the product page; this firmware is updated on the product page in conjunction with GitHub releases.

Release Packages

How can the Sterling-LWB5+ support extended temperature range while the data sheet for the chip only shows commercial temperature grade?

For the Sterling-LWB5+ Wifi module, Laird does not use the regular CYW4373 chip from Cypress but a version that supports extended temperature range by the name of CYP4373E.

What are some common wpa_supplicant network block profiles?

Open/unsecured Network:


network={
        ssid="myAP"
        key_mgmt=NONE
        scan_ssid=1
}

 

WPA2-PSK:


network={
        ssid="myAP"
        key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
        psk="password"
        pairwise=CCMP
        group=CCMP
        proto=RSN
        scan_ssid=1
}

 

WPA2-AES with EAP-TLS


network={
    scan_ssid=1
    ssid="myAP"
    pairwise=CCMP
    group=CCMP
    key_mgmt=WPA-EAP
    proto=RSN
    eap=TLS
    identity="user1"
    private_key="/etc/certs/user1.pem"
    private_key_passwd="user1"
    client_cert="/etc/certs/user1.pem"
}

 

WPA-TKIP with PEAP MSCHAPv2:


network={
    scan_ssid=1
    ssid="myAP"
    key_mgmt=WPA-EAP
    eap=PEAP
    identity="user1"
    phase1="peaplabel=auto peapver=0 "
    phase2="auth=MSCHAPV2"
    password="user1"
}

 

For the full documentation provided by the wpa_supplicant maintainers, please visit: https://w1.fi/cgit/hostap/plain/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

I have a Ubuntu system that has automatic updates will this affect my Wi-Fi?

Yes as new kernels are updated in Ubuntu automatically it will break backports and will need to be reinstalled.

What is the difference between the Sterling supplicant and open-source wpa_supplicant?

The Sterling supplicant is based on the open-source wpa_supplicant and is also provided as an open-source package.

We update the source and patch as needed to make sure we are up to date on the latest CVEs.

It also goes through our QA validation process with each production release of backports and firmware. For more information, see the release notes on GitHub:

How can Low Power Mode (LPM) be enabled on Laird's Sterling-LWB, Sterling-LWB5 and Sterling-LWB5+ modules?

In order to enable LPM mode on the Sterling-LWB, Sterling-LWB5 and Sterling-LWB5+ modules the options --enable_lpm and --enable_hci need to be added to the patchram command line expression:

# patchram -d --patchram /lib/firmware/brcm/4343w.hcd --enable_lpm --enable_hci --no2bytes  --tosleep 1000 /dev/ttyS1 c1 &

This also enables BT_HOST_WAKE (output) and BT_DEV_WAKE (input).
BT_DEV_WAKE needs to be asserted for the module to respond.

Can I use the Broadcom firmware that comes with my kernel?

We provide custom firmware from Cypress that includes power tables that are only for the LWB Series modules. Using firmware that is not provided by us will violate the modular certifications.

Do the LWB Series radios support worldwide mode?

Unfortunately the LWB Series can only be configured for a static region. We do have options with our other radios, please contact support and we can make a recommendation based on your project's needs.

What is the MCS index for Wi-Fi?

MCS stands for Modulation Coding Scheme and is an industry metric index based on Wi-Fi connection parameters between a client and wireless access point. These parameters include modulation type, coding rate, spatial streams, channel width, and guard interval.

Backports fails to compile with 'refcount_t {aka struct refcount_struct}' has no member named 'counter'

There are certain patch ranges within kernels 4.4 and 4.9 that need a modification so backports can build, the reason why we cannot fix it in backports is that we cannot track and differentiate between patch versions of the same 'major.minor' version of kernel. To fix this issue, move the function kobject_has_children from linux/kobject.h to drivers/base/core.c in your kernel source, rebuild the kernel and then rebuild backports.

Can I use the brcmfmac driver that comes with my kernel?

We provide driver support via our fork of the backports package and integrate releases from Cypress/Infineon. Backports replaces the kernel-side Bluetooth stack and Wi-Fi stack including cfg80211 and driver. We regularly perform a kernel rebase to keep up with LTS releases which provides the benefit of running a modern stack on a range of kernels. We perform build verification regression testing including popular silicon vendor kernels such as Xilinx, nVidia, ST Micro, TI and NXP. All releases are QA validated in our automated testing system.

We support our customers integrating backports in different Linux build environments including Yocto, Buildroot and PetaLinux. Please contact support if integration assistance is needed.

What are some disadvantages of using AP+STA?

The AP and STA are on the same channel potentially causing disconnections if the STA roams to a different AP. The Sterling-70 has the advantage of dual independent radios that can run on different Wi-Fi channels.

Can I use a single antenna with a LWB5+ diversity enabled module (Trace and M.2)?

Yes you can, however, to do this you need a specific set of module binary files (NVRAM and CLM).  The combinations required are not currently supported in the released LWB5+ Laird software packages (v8.5.0.7 and earlier).

Please contact  technical support or sales to enable this option.

What are the requirements to be able to leverage "Modular Approval"?

In order to be able to leverage the Modular Approval of a wireless module the following requirements have to be met:

  • The RF circuitry must be shielded
  • The module must have buffered modulation/data inputs. Module must inherently ensure compliance under host fault (watch dog) conditions
  • The module must have a regulated power supply
  • An antenna needs to be attached permanently or a unique antenna connector must be mounted on the module
  • The module must be compliant with the regulations in a stand-alone configuration
  • The module must be labeled with its permanently affixed FCC ID label or use an electronic display
  • A user manual needs to provide comprehensive instructions to explain compliance requirements.
  • The module must comply with RF exposure requirements

What versions of Android are supported by Laird Wi-Fi modules?

This can be found by reviewing the release notes for the specific product on GitHub.

 

Do I need pull-ups on the SDIO pins of the Sterling-LWB5+?

No, the Sterling-LWB5+ does not require pull-ups. The module is configured with internal pull-ups

Does the LWB5+ require a 32.768kHz clock?

Yes, an external 32.768kHz clock is required by the LWB5+.

How will Laird handle the FRAG attack announced by Wi-Fi Alliance in 2021 May?

Please refer this blog as below. Laird are currently investigating these issues internally and investigating with the chipset vendors and our internal QA team to establish test scenarios to evaluate the impacted devices.

https://www.lairdconnect.com/resources/blog/frag-attack-wi-fi-putting-pieces-back-together

Can I use a Laird WiFi module on Ubuntu?

Laird modules can be used on a Ubuntu system with a kernel version that is supported by Laird backports.

To check, find the kernel version of the Ubuntu system and then check the release notes of the products to see if the latest backports supports that kernel.

Sterling-60 Release Notes

Sterling-LWB Release Notes

How do I confirm WiFi connection status in Linux?

The iw tool can be used to read the status of the device:


# iw dev

phy#0
        Unnamed/non-netdev interface
                wdev 0x2
                addr 7e:4a:78:cc:85:77
                type P2P-device
                txpower 31.00 dBm
        Interface wlan0
                ifindex 7
                wdev 0x1
                addr aa:bb:cc:07:0c:b1
                ssid testAP
                type AP
                channel 11 (2462 MHz), width: 20 MHz, center1: 2462 MHz
                txpower 31.00 dBm

Managed/client mode link information:

# iw wlan0 link

Connected to aa:bb:cc:12:34:56 (on wlan0)
        SSID: testAP
        freq: 2462
        RX: 364 bytes (2 packets)
        TX: 3782 bytes (22 packets)
        signal: -31 dBm
        tx bitrate: 2.0 MBit/s
        bss flags:      short-slot-time
        dtim period:    2
        beacon int:     200

AP mode to read connected client information:

# iw wlan0 station dump

Station aa:bb:cc:8b:6c:fe (on wlan0)
        inactive time:  3000 ms
        rx bytes:       6479
        rx packets:     37
        tx bytes:       9706
        tx packets:     66
        tx failed:      0
        signal:         -44 [-44] dBm
        tx bitrate:     1.0 MBit/s
        rx bitrate:     65.0 MBit/s
        authorized:     yes
        authenticated:  yes
        associated:     yes
        WMM/WME:        yes
        TDLS peer:      no
        DTIM period:    2
        beacon interval:100
        short slot time:yes
        connected time: 20 seconds

 

How do I make the LWB5+ SDIO 1.8v work with an iMX8M DVK?

If you choose SDIO VDDIO 1.8v mode in the Sterling-LWB5+, you need to make sure that the host platform won’t probe 3.3v.

You need to change the wire of port 1 and 3 in Q1601 in iMX8M DVK, so that it won’t probe 3.3v during SDHC module detection.

Please check the attached schematic file and need this modification.

How do I use your precompiled dynamically linked binaries such as your supplicants or radio testing tools?

If the binary returns "not found" or does not work after confirming the executable bit is set with chmod +x <filename>, then you will need to create a symlink pointing to the system's interpreter. The file tool will show the expected interpreter and architecture of a binary, readelf is a lot more verbose and is used to discover the expected "sonames" of shared libraries. These utilities do not have to be used on the target system and is convenient to use on a common x86 Linux machine. These utilities can be installed on Ubuntu with sudo apt install binutils.

Example output from the file command:
sterling_supplicant-arm-7.0.0.139/usr/sbin$ file wpa_supplicant
wpa_supplicant: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, ARM, EABI5 version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib/ld-linux.so.3, for GNU/Linux 3.0.0, stripped

Example output from the readelf command:
sterling_supplicant-arm-7.0.0.139/usr/sbin$ readelf -ld wpa_supplicant Elf file type is EXEC (Executable file)
Entry point 0xba28
There are 10 program headers, starting at offset 52 Program Headers:
...
<edited>
...
      [Requesting program interpreter: /lib/ld-linux.so.3]
...
<edited>
...
Dynamic section at offset 0x176ee8 contains 30 entries:
  Tag        Type                         Name/Value
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [librt.so.1]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libnl-3.so.200]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libnl-genl-3.so.200]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libdl.so.2]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libdbus-1.so.3]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libgcc_s.so.1]
 0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libc.so.6]
...
<edited>
...

To use this binary, we will have to confirm this symlink exists or create a new symlink pointing to the interpreter on the target filesystem:
cd /lib/
ls -l ld-*
-rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        158772 Dec  2  2019 /lib/ld-2.26.so
ln -sf ld-2.26.so ld-linux.so.3
ls -l ld-*
-rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        158772 Dec  2  2019 /lib/ld-2.26.so
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root            10 Dec 21 18:55 /lib/ld-linux.so.3 -> ld-2.26.so

If the binary now reports that a library is not found when executed, repeat the steps shown above for creating a library symlink/soname pointing to it's real name. This may require you to use the find command to discover the location of the library. Example for libnl-genl-3:
find / -name 'libnl-genl-3*' -exec ls -l {} 2>/dev/null \;
-rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root         18524 Feb 14 23:42 /usr/lib/libnl-genl-3.so.200.26.0
cd /usr/lib/
ln -sf libnl-genl-3.so.200.26.0 libnl-genl-3.so.200
ls -l libnl-genl-3*
-rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root         18524 Feb 14 23:42 /usr/lib/libnl-genl-3.so.200.26.0
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root            24 Feb 14 23:37 /usr/lib/libnl-genl-3.so.200 -> libnl-genl-3.so.200.26.0

If the library does not exist, you will have to include that package in your build. For instance if the above example libnl was missing, include the libnl package when building your filesystem.

How long do I have to keep the Sterling-LWB5+ in RESET?

The absolute minimum the Power On Reset shall be asserted is 150ms after the power supply is stable and the WL_REG_ON and/or BT_REG_ON signal are asserted.

However we recommend waiting 250 milliseconds to ensure the internal reset sequence has completed.

Note: The signals WL_REG_ON and BT_REG_ON are pulled high by default internally for the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth radios to be enabled when power is applied.
 

What are all these firmware files for the Sterling-LWB5+?

The Sterling-LWB5+ supports the use of two different antenna configurations. That is single antenna (SA) or antenna diversity (DIV).

It also supports the usage of two interface configurations. That is SDIO for Wifi and UART for Bluetooh on the one hand and USB for both on the other.

For each interface combination there is a possible antenna configuration, hence 4 firmware files.

E.g.:


 

How do I know what CVEs/vulnerabilities have been addressed and in which version of code?

CVEs that have been addressed are referenced in our release notes. If there is a new CVE or one that is not listed in our release notes, please submit a ticket using our support portal and we will provide the status.

Radio-specific release notes can be found in the corresponding GitHub repo: https://github.com/LairdCP/Release-Packages

How do I set up an open hotspot using Network Manager?

You can use the Network Manager command line interface to create an open hotspot using this command:

nmcli con add con-name open_hotspot ifname wlan0 type wifi ssid yourSSID mode ap wifi.band bg wifi.channel 6 ipv4.method shared

 

I am getting the message "brcmfmac: brcmf_usb_dl_cmd: usb_submit_urb failed -19" - how bad is that?

During the integration of a Sterling-LWB5+ Wifi module with USB interface often the occurance of message "brcmfmac: brcmf_usb_dl_cmd: usb_submit_urb failed -19" is obeserved.

This by itself is not harmful as it means that a USB transaction did not complete on the USB bus.


It can happen during initialization after the USB firmware has been downloaded and the module is not ready to be polled yet.

It should not be seen as an error but rather as a message.
Normal Wifi operation can still be avaiable.

 

I'm using the trace pin version of the LWB5+ (453-00047), what reference design should I follow in order to leverage Laird's certification?

In order to leverage our radio certification, you must follow the layout of the m.2 version of the Sterling-LWB5+.

 

The RF trace must match the layout exactly, and you must use the exact same parts that are on the RF path of the m.2 module (i.e. no part substitution allowed).

Is there a way to disable 5GHz on the LWB5+

You can disable 5GHz on the SDIO version of the LWB5+, by modifying the NVRAM file (i.e. .txt file in /lib/firmware) as follows:

change devid=0x4418 to devid=0x4419

Note: This is currently not possible on the the USB version on the LWB5+ because the NVRAM information is included in the firmware.

Is it Ok to put the chip antenna version (453-00045) of the LWB5+ on the corner of my PCB?

No, the chip antenna version of the Sterling-LWB5+ must NOT be placed on the corner of the PCB.

Ideally, it should be mounted on the middle edge of the board. It can be shifted away from the middle edge in either direction, but it MUST have a minimum 3mm ground plane on both sides of the module, bigger is better.

LWB5+ fails to work after inserting modules manually

When loading backport modules manually the LWB5+ will not have a regulatory domain set. To fix this the brcmfmac.ko module needs to be loaded with a regulatory domain.

Example:

insmod brcmfmac.ko regdomain="US"

 

The Country Code will need to be changed based on country usage. Review the Software Integration Guide (SIG) on Laird's GitHub for more information.

What do I need to consider when desinging in the chip-down/SIPT version so I can leverage your modular certifications?

In order to leverage our modular certifications, you must follow the RF design of the module associated with the chip/SIPT. Design files will be provided upon request so you can reproduce our design on your custom board. We highly suggest you to take advantage of our free design review to prevent any issues when going for certification testing.

Please submit a ticket using our support portal when you are ready to begin the process.

What is my best chance to use an antenna that is not pre-certified for my wireless module?

To use an antenna that is not listed on your wireless modules datasheet, it must be of the same topology (e.g. dipole, PIFA, etc.), equal or lesser gain, and have the same in-band and out of band characteristics.

Note: Japan (MIC) lists applicable antennas on its certificates. If your antenna is not on the approved list, regardless of whether it is comparative, it must be added to the certificate before it can be used in Japan.

Why is there no CONFIG_HOST_1 / STRAP_1 on my Sterling-LWB5+ solder down module?

There is only two pins required to choose between the available interface options of USB, SDIO 1.8V and SDIO 3.3V.

Pins accessable are CONFIG_HOST_2 (STRAP_2) and CONFIG_HOST_0 (STRAP_0).

CONFIG_HOST_1 (STRAP_1) is not accessable. It is tied to GND inside of the module.

Can you tell me more about the m.2 connector used on your Wi-Fi modules?

The m.2 used on our Wi-Fi modules is an E-key. Review the PCI Express M.2 Specification from the PCI-SIG website for more information.

  • Here is an Application note on E-Key from NXP
  • When using an m.2 Wi-Fi module ensure your platform supports the interface by the selected m.2 Wi-Fi module. An example is an external sleep clock which is needed by some Laird Connectivity modules.

 

How to set radio to Soft AP mode?

If you don't want simultaneous ap/sta, you can run the commands:

nmcli conn add type wifi ifname wlan0 con-name softAP autoconnect no ssid softAP

nmcli conn modify softAP 802-11-wireless.mode ap 802-11-wireless.band bg 802-11d

nmcli conn up softAP

You can also do it via wpa_supplicant .conf files if you do not have nmcli.

 

 

How to set regulation domain in LWB/LWB5/LWB5+ with latest release 8.5.0.7 and later release in Linux platform?

(1) By option regdomain

/etc/modprobe.d/brcmfmac.conf

# Sample contents of a brcmfmac.conf file configured for operation in
#  the United States
options brcmfmac regdomain="US"

(2) By device tree

@mmc0 {
  #address-cells = <1>;
  #size-cells = <0>;
  bus-width = <4>;
  non-removable;

  brcmf: wifi@1 {
    reg = <1>;
    compatible = "brcm,bcm4329-fmac";
    laird,regdomain = "US";
  };
};

Is there a way to extend the shelf life of Laird modules?? If the shelf life cannot be extended in any way, what are the consequences of using modules after shelf life?

The shelf life statements are essentially to prevent mishandling of the product and not storing it properly. If the modules are still sealed in the package, stored at the proper temperature and have not been exposed to moisture they should be fine. However, when working with modules beyond their shelf life you MUST bake the modules before populating the them to your board. Failure to bake the modules could result in the yield rate dropping down lower than expectation due to popcorn or de-lamination on the modules. It is recommended that you follow IPC/JEDEC J-STD-033 which is the general standard for the handling, packing, shipping and use of moisture/reflow sensitive surface mount devices.

Our main concern is around the castellation/pads which solder the module to the board. It is imperative those pads do not get tarnished, as this would cause soldering issues. Humidity can affect solderability as well, as if there is any excess moisture in the solder on the module, during reflow of the module to the board, steam balls can essentially explode the solder and sometimes result in an open circuit (or possibly a short circuit).

As long as all of the moisture handling and temperature guidelines are being followed you will likely have no issues. It is further recommended that when you do the build with modules that have exceeded their shelf life that you start with a handful to perform a test run and do a final test to make sure all is working as expected. As long as there are no issues with the initial test run we would expect that you will not experience any problems.

How do I test layer 2 Bluetooth stability without setting up a profile on a Linux platform?

In BlueZ, some commands such as l2test or l2ping are able to generate traffic on L2CAP layer. To test performance and reliability, you can use the l2test command:

On the server, run the command:

l2test -I 2000 -r

On the client side, run the command:

l2test -O 2000 -s XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX

What Bluetooth 5.x features does the LWB5+ support?

The Sterling-LWB5+ is Bluetooth 5.0 qualified with all errata applicable to v4.2 and earlier features as well as all support for optional Bluetooth 4.2 features. If you have specific Bluetooth features that are required please contact support for more information.

What is the torque value to tighten Module on to Stud in LWB5+ M.2 module?

3.5~5.5 Kgf-cm

When I try to get my Bluetooth interface up on the UART using "patchram" I receive the error "can't set line discipline"?

When the error "can't set line discipline" occurs when the patchram tool is used to bring up the Bluetooth HCI-UART device it is very likely that the "Bluetooth HCI UART" driver (or module) is not enabled in the Linux kernel configuration as module.

I need the wl tool for certification, how do I gain access?

Per our agreement with Infineon, formally Cypress, we are required to distribute the testing tools package on an individual basis. To request access, please submit a technical support ticket on our support portal